# Articles Archives

## Design Considerations for Shell and Tube Heat E...

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Heat Transfer

When preparing to design a heat exchanger, do you ever wonder where to start? You've done it before, but you hate that feeling of getting half way through the design and realizing that you forgot to consider one important element.The thought process i...

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## Solving Integral Equations in MS Excel

Nov 08 2010 01:10 PM | Steve Hall in Calculations and Tips

TankVolume, as it appears in the online store, calculates the liquid volume of partially filled tanks, horizontal or vertical, with various types of heads.Â  One of these, the torispherical head, requires that integral equations be solved.Â  This artic...

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## Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 2

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. This part will discuss how to size the rupture disk. Subsequent parts will include how to set the burst pressure...

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## Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 1

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

This is a real story. A rupture disk manufacturer presented a seminar to a group consisting of junior and more senior level process design engineers (yours truly included) with a few instrument engineers thrown in. After about an hour of hearing terms...

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## Ammonia: The Next Step

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Guest in Process and Reactions

Steam reforming of hydrocarbons for ammonia production was introduced in 1930. Since then, the technology has experienced revolutionary changes in its energy consumption patterns. Ranging from an early level of 20 Gcal/tonne (79.4 MBtu/tonne) to about...

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## Tank Blanketing Basics Covered

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | proinwv in Safety and Pressure Relief

Tank blanketing, or padding, refers to applying a cover of gas over the surface of a stores commodity; usually a liquid. Its purpose is either to protect or contain the stored product or prevent it from harming personnel, equipment, or the environment....

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## Why Become a Chemical Engineer?

May 30 2012 06:50 PM | Chris Haslego in For Students

How about a career where the opportunities are endless? Trying not to sound like an advertisement, I'd like to describe some of the more common careers pursued with a Chemical Engineering degree. Firstly, if you're considering studying Chemical Engineering, but you're a little timid because of the horror stories that you hear, you actually may want to think about it some more!

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## What is a Heat Pipe?

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Chris Haslego in Other Topics

A heat pipe is a simple device that can quickly transfer heat from one point to another. They are often referred to as the "superconductors" of heat as they possess an extra ordinary heat transfer capacity and rate with almost no heat loss. The idea of...

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## Optimize Liquid-Liquid Extraction

Nov 08 2010 12:40 PM | Madhavan in Separation Technology

Liquid-Liquid extractors are often a neglected part of process plants because they are not well understood and generally form only a small part of the overall process scheme. Often, significant savings in operating costs can be achieved by fine-tuning...

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## Extractive Distillation: An In-Depth Look

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | Chris Haslego in Separation Technology

Distillation is the most widely used separation technique in the chemical and petroleum industry. However, not all liquid mixture are amenable to ordinary fractional distillation. When the components of the system have low relative volatilities (1.00...

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## Sizing of Packed Towers in Acid Plants

Dec 13 2010 10:20 AM | Guest in Separation Technology

Packed towers are key components in sulfuric acid plants. Drying of the sulfur furnace air is necessary to avoid acid condensation and corrosion in downstream equipment and to minimize mist formation. Absorption of SO3 in the Interpass and Final Towers...

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## Estimating Heat Capacities for Solutions with D...

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | Chris Haslego in Calculations and Tips

Often times it is necessary to find the heat capacity for solutions with dissolved solids. A quick estimation method was proposed by Dimoplon in 1972. The proposed expression is:Cp(soln) = W1 Cp(solid) + W2 Cp(water)Eq. (1)where:Cp(soln) = Heat capacit...

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## Physical Properties on the Internet

Jun 16 2011 09:50 PM | Chris Haslego in Physical Properties

Finding physical properties on the internet can lead to an interesting journey. Here, we've compiled a list of some of the best sites that we've found over the years. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Water and SteamDr. Bernhard Spang presents...

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## Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 3

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. Part 2 discussed how to size the rupture disk. In this part, I will cover how to set the burst pressure. Subsequ...

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## Relief Valves: "What Can Go Wrong" Scen...

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

What can go wrong in a chemical facility? Plenty! A report in the August 2000 issue of CEP1 shows that operator error or poor maintenance was the leading of cause of accidents for unfired pressure vessels eight years running. The ProblemAccidents not o...

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## Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | Chris Haslego in Heat Transfer

Calculating heat exchanger effectiveness allows engineers to predict how a given heat exchanger will perform a new job. Essentially, it helps engineers predict the stream outlet temperatures without a trial-and-error solution that would otherwise be ne...

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## Pneumatic Conveying Design

Nov 08 2010 01:00 PM | Chris Haslego in Bulk Solids

One of the most popular methods of moving solids in the chemical industry is pneumatic conveying. Pneumatic conveying refers to the moving of solids suspended in or forced by a gas stream through horizontal and/or vertical pipes. Pneumatic conveying ca...

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## Basics of Polystyrene Production

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | Chris Haslego in Process and Reactions

Polystyrene is a widely used polymer.Â  After production of the monomer, from one of a few processes, the monomer proceeds to further processing to form polystyrene. Styrene Monomer ProductionThe energy needed for the reaction is supplied by superheate...

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## Fume Control and Scrubbing on Hydrochloric Acid...

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Chris Haslego in Process and Reactions

New standards for hydrochloric acid emissions are expected to be proposed by the EPA soon, and these will affect the design of scrubbers for pickle line fume exhaust systems. This paper discusses hydrochloric acid fume scrubbing, with particular refere...

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## Understanding Compressible Flow

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | rxnarang in Fluid Flow

Understanding the flow of compressible fluids in pipes is necessary for a robust design of process plants. The main difference between incompressible fluid, like water, and compressible fluid, vapor, is the greater change in pressure and density. This...

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## Flow Through Orifice Plates in Compressible Flu...

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | dkirk in Safety and Pressure Relief

The calculation of compressible flow through orifice plates at high dP (critical flow) appears to be carried out incorrectly in most instances. This flow condition is often encountered on gas plants, compressor stations and pipelines where orifice plat...

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## Statistical Process Control: Process and Qualit...

Jul 14 2012 06:50 PM | Chris Haslego in Process and Reactions

Statistical Process Control (SPC) provides a way to monitor chemical and other processes. We'll focus on continuous chemical processes and how the process and quality control departments utilize SPC. Process control engineers use SPC to monitor a process's stability, consistency and overall performance. Quality control engineers use SPC to see if the process is functioning within quality standards. In industry, these two departments work together to monitor a chemical process.

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## Basics of Leaching

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Separation Technology

Simply put, leaching generally refers to the removal of a substance from a solid via a liquid extraction media.Â  The desired component diffuses into the solvent from its natural solid form.Â  Examples of leaching include the removal of sugar from suga...

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## Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 5

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. Part 2 discussed how to size the rupture disk. Part 3 discussed how to set the burst pressure. Part 4 discussed...

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## Keeping Ejectors Online

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Utilities

Steam jet ejectors offer a simple, reliable means of producing vacuum, and have a low installed cost as well. They are commonly found in process plants having available steam. The vacuum produced is useful for many processes, including evaporation, coo...

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