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Water Chemistry and Treatment

Jun 03 2012 06:50 PM | Chris Haslego in Utilities

Water is a natural solvent. Rain water is acidic due to carbon dioxide picked up in the atmosphere. Water and CO2 make carbonic acid (acid rain). Water hardness is primarily calcium and magnesium. Calcium is limestone - common throughout Midwest. Acid water dissolves limestone, iron, and other minerals in soil.



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Understanding Compressible Flow

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | rxnarang in Fluid Flow

Understanding the flow of compressible fluids in pipes is necessary for a robust design of process plants. The main difference between incompressible fluid, like water, and compressible fluid, vapor, is the greater change in pressure and density. This...

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Forms of Corrosion

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Chris Haslego in Maintenance and Repair

Corrosion is costly! If you doubt this, then you probably have never been bitten by the "corrosion bug". Imagine specifying Titanium for 10 brand new heat exchangers or reactors and later realizing that the processing stream has fairly high concentra...

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Crystallization

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Separation Technology

Crystallization refers to the formation of solid crystals from a homogeneous solution.  It is essentially a solid-liquid separation technique and a very important one at that. Crystals are grown in many shapes, which are dependent upon downstream proc...

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Using Equivalent Lengths of Valves and Fittings

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | pleckner in Fluid Flow

One of the most basic calculations performed by any process engineer, whether in design or in the plant, is line sizing and pipeline pressure loss. Typically known are the flow rate, temperature and corresponding viscosity and specific gravity of the f...

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Estimating Heat Capacities for Solutions with D...

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | Chris Haslego in Calculations and Tips

Often times it is necessary to find the heat capacity for solutions with dissolved solids. A quick estimation method was proposed by Dimoplon in 1972. The proposed expression is:Cp(soln) = W1 Cp(solid) + W2 Cp(water)Eq. (1)where:Cp(soln) = Heat capacit...

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Flow Through Orifice Plates in Compressible Flu...

Nov 08 2010 01:40 PM | dkirk in Safety and Pressure Relief

The calculation of compressible flow through orifice plates at high dP (critical flow) appears to be carried out incorrectly in most instances. This flow condition is often encountered on gas plants, compressor stations and pipelines where orifice plat...

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Making Decisions with Insulation

Nov 08 2010 12:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Heat Transfer

Many people overlook the importance of insulation in the chemical industry. Some estimates have predicted that insulation in U.S. industry alone saves approximately 200 million barrels of oil every year. While placing insulation onto a pipe is fairly...

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U in Heat Exchangers

May 10 2012 08:19 AM | bspang in Heat Transfer

Typical values of U are useful for quickly estimating the required surface area. The literature has many tabulations of such typical coefficients for commercial heat transfer services.



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Specifying A Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchanger

Nov 07 2010 06:00 PM | Chris Haslego in Heat Transfer

As an engineer, specifying heat exchangers for procurement is an important step in the successful execution of any heat transfer or energy conservation project. Early recognition that there are many different heat transfer technologies available can he...

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Terms of Use and Legal Restrictions

Feb 17 2011 11:50 PM | Chris Haslego in Articles

ATTENTION: PLEASE READ THESE TERMS CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THIS WEB SITE. USING THIS WEB SITE INDICATES THAT YOU ACCEPT THESE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT ACCEPT THESE TERMS ("TERMS"), DO NOT USE THIS WEB SITE. Use of Site. The Chemical Engineers' Resource Pa...

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Valve Sizing and Selection

Dec 05 2011 03:20 PM | Chris Haslego in Fluid Flow

Sizing flow valves is a science with many rules of thumb that few people agree on. In this article I'll try to define a more standard procedure for sizing a valve as well as helping to select the appropriate type of valve. **Please note that the corr...

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Steam Tracing with MS Excel

May 24 2012 06:50 PM | adelange in Heat Transfer

Heat tracing is used to prevent heat loss from process fluids being transported in process fluid pipes, when there is risk of damage to piping, or interference with operation such as fouling or blockage, caused by the congealing, increase in viscosity, or separation of components, in the fluid below certain temperatures, or when there is risk of formation of corrosive substances or water due to condensation in corrosive services.

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Ammonia: The Next Step

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Guest in Process and Reactions

Steam reforming of hydrocarbons for ammonia production was introduced in 1930. Since then, the technology has experienced revolutionary changes in its energy consumption patterns. Ranging from an early level of 20 Gcal/tonne (79.4 MBtu/tonne) to about...

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Design Considerations for Shell and Tube Heat E...

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Heat Transfer

When preparing to design a heat exchanger, do you ever wonder where to start? You've done it before, but you hate that feeling of getting half way through the design and realizing that you forgot to consider one important element.The thought process i...

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Energy Conservation in Distillation

Dec 13 2010 09:23 AM | Chris Haslego in Separation Technology

The preferred method of separation in the chemical industry, distillation, is a very energy intensive process. Fine tuning your distillation columns (and in some cases, making major changes) can save your company thousands of dollars a year or more. Co...

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Product Viscosity Versus Shear

Feb 11 2013 06:50 PM | Steve Hall in Fluid Flow

Many products are known to be “shear thinning,” which is a term given to materials that exhibit a decrease in viscosity when force is exerted. The viscosity of pseudoplastic fluids decreases with shear, and recovers quickly when the shear is removed. Examples include paper pulp in water, latex paint, molasses, and pharmaceutical suspensions (such as certain cough syrups).



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Hollow Fiber Membranes

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | Chris Haslego in Separation Technology

Membrane separation processes has become one of the emerging technology which undergo a rapid growth during the past few decades. It has drawn the world attention especially in the separation technology field, one of the chemical engineers' specialty w...

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Air Leak Testing Prior to Commissioning

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Maintenance and Repair

Our message board is a constant source of great advice and information for all of our users. Some times, an especially useful discussion takes place that deserves a little extra attention. The inquiry and reply shownin this articlecan benefit process e...

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Relieve Valve Set Pressures

Nov 08 2010 01:20 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

As the title of this column implies, I intend to present various topics related to Process Engineering Design based on my knowledge and experiences. I will convey what approaches I think you should be taking. I will stress "the correct way" so don't ex...

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Relief Valves: "What Can Go Wrong" Scen...

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

What can go wrong in a chemical facility? Plenty! A report in the August 2000 issue of CEP1 shows that operator error or poor maintenance was the leading of cause of accidents for unfired pressure vessels eight years running. The ProblemAccidents not o...

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Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 2

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. This part will discuss how to size the rupture disk. Subsequent parts will include how to set the burst pressure...

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Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 3

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. Part 2 discussed how to size the rupture disk. In this part, I will cover how to set the burst pressure. Subsequ...

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Rupture Disks for Process Engineers - Part 4

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | pleckner in Safety and Pressure Relief

Part 1 of this series on rupture disks for Process Engineers covered why you use a rupture disk and when you might want to use this device. Part 2 discussed how to size the rupture disk. Part 3 discussed how to set the burst pressure. In this part, I w...

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Developing a New Drug

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Chris Haslego in Other Topics

The purpose of this article is to look at how drugs are developed today in the modern world and how the chemical engineer is instrumental in the development of new drugs.  Let's first take a look at how the development of a new drug begins.  It is in...

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