Jump to content

Chemical and Process Engineering Resources

Centrifugal Pumps: Understanding Cavitation

Nov 08 2010 01:30 PM | Mukesh Sahdev in Fluid Flow *****

Operating a pump under the condition of cavitation for even a short period of time can have damaging consequences for both the equipment and the process. Operating a pump at low flow conditions for an extended duration may also have damaging consequences for the equipment.

In Part I of this article, two basic requirements for trouble free operation and longer service life of centrifugal pumps are mentioned in brief:

  • Prevent cavitation
    Cavitation of the pump should not occur throughout its operating capacity range.
  • Minimize low flow operation

    Continuous operation of centrifugal pumps at low flows i.e. reduced capacities, leads to a number of unfavorable conditions. These include reduced motor efficiency, excessive radial thrusts, excessive temperature rise in the pumping fluid, internal re-circulation, etc. A certain minimum continuous flow (MCF) should be maintained during the pump operation.

The condition of cavitation is essentially an indication of an abnormality in the pump suction system, whereas the condition of low flow indicates an abnormality in the entire pumping system or process. The two conditions are also inter-linked such that a low flow situation can also induce cavitation.

Cavitation is a common occurrence but is the least understood of all pumping problems. Cavitation means different things to different people. Some say when a pump makes a rattling or knocking sound along with vibrations, it is cavitating. Some call it slippage as the pump discharge pressure slips and flow becomes erratic. When cavitating, the pump not only fails to serve its basic purpose of pumping the liquid but also may experience internal damage, leakage from the seal and casing, bearing failure, etc.

In summary, cavitation is an abnormal condition that can result in loss of production, equipment damage and worst of all, injury to personnel.

The plant engineer's job is to quickly detect the signs of cavitation, correctly identify the type and cause of the cavitation and eliminate it. A good understanding of the concept is the key to troubleshooting any cavitation related pumping problem.

The Meaning of Cavitation

The term ‘cavitation' comes from the Latin word cavus, which means a hollow space or a cavity. Webster's Dictionary defines the word ‘cavitation' as the rapid formation and collapse of cavities in a flowing liquid in regions of very low pressure.

In any discussion on centrifugal pumps various terms like vapor pockets, gas pockets, holes, bubbles, etc. are used in place of the term cavities. These are one and the same thing and need not be confused. The term bubble shall be used hereafter in the discussion.

In the context of centrifugal pumps, the term cavitation implies a dynamic process of formation of bubbles inside the liquid, their growth and subsequent collapse as the liquid flows through the pump.

Generally, the bubbles that form inside the liquid are of two types: Vapor bubbles or Gas bubbles.

  1. Vapor bubbles are formed due to the vaporisation of a process liquid that is being pumped. The cavitation condition induced by formation and collapse of vapor bubbles is commonly referred to as Vaporous Cavitation.
  2. Gas bubbles are formed due to the presence of dissolved gases in the liquid that is being pumped (generally air but may be any gas in the system). The cavitation condition induced by the formation and collapse of gas bubbles is commonly referred to as Gaseous Cavitation.

Both types of bubbles are formed at a point inside the pump where the local static pressure is less than the vapor pressure of the liquid (vaporous cavitation) or saturation pressure of the gas (gaseous cavitation).

Vaporous cavitation is the most common form of cavitation found in process plants. Generally it occurs due to insufficiency of the available NPSH or internal recirculation phenomenon. It generally manifests itself in the form of reduced pump performance, excessive noise and vibrations and wear of pump parts. The extent of the cavitation damage can range from a relatively minor amount of pitting after years of service to catastrophic failure in a relatively short period of time.

Gaseous cavitation occurs when any gas (most commonly air) enters a centrifugal pump along with liquid. A centrifugal pump can handle air in the range of ½ % by volume. If the amount of air is increased to 6%, the pump starts cavitating. The cavitation condition
is also referred to as Air binding. It seldom causes damage to the impeller or casing. The main effect of gaseous cavitation is loss of capacity.

The different types of cavitation, their specific symptoms and specific corrective actions shall be explored in the next part of the article. However, in order to clearly identify the type of cavitation, let us first understand the mechanism of cavitation, i.e. how cavitation occurs. Unless otherwise specified, the term cavitation shall refer to vaporous cavitation.

Fluid Flow Articles


Excellent article. Thank you
Great article. This will increase my understandings about cavitation.
Thank very much.
Wajahat Hussain
Mar 19 2012 01:27 PM
we have studied this 2day very nice.........
Great article although I wanted to point out even wneh general guidelines are followed one may still experience uneven flow distribution in to the pump. A pump requires a well developed, uniform flow pattern at a narrow flow rate range since the impeller inlet eye and vanes are optimized to not create turbulence at design flow. This pump design feature is very susceptible to non-uniform inlet flow because when liquid velocity varies and does not meet the pump design assumption of a uniform velocity striking the impeller eye, flow separation results which causes cavitation and associated problems. I think there should be more empahsis and discussion on technologies to improve traditional piping and pumping rules (lack of space, erosion, impeller wear, pump failure). Please take a look at cheng rotation vane, impeller coating, need solutions.
Feb 01 2013 06:20 PM

Great article but in your classification of pump problems, you have left out the most important class., i.e. problems in getting required parameters because of system conditions.Design Problems is of little use to the site engineer as he can't do anything about it. He can definitely correct system problems however.

Jan 13 2014 12:57 PM
Grt .tx


I have a question regarding centrifugal pump.

A new pump is under commssioning in my plant and we have to go for water trial, can you please provide details on that how to proceed?

Nov 22 2014 02:25 AM

Great...   thank u,,,,

THE BEST ONE...........

Thanks a lot ; it is much better than any other text  about this topic in the pump literature , thanks again