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Steam Tracing Design

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 04 November 2017 - * * * * * · 954 views
steam, trace, design, excel
Steam Tracing Design Dear All,

It is well known that chemical process plants located in areas where ambient temperatures can fall well below freezing may require heat tracing of lines and equipment containing process fluids that can freeze or congeal and stop flowing thereby causing costly plant outages and economic losses. In certain cases, freezing of line contents and flo...


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The Perennial Debate On Piping / Pipeline Design Pressure

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 16 October 2017 - - - - - - · 1,349 views
pipe, pipeline, design, pressure and 1 more...
The Perennial Debate On Piping / Pipeline Design Pressure Dear All,

I have lost count on how many times I have debated and argued the topic of piping / pipeline design pressure. “Cheresources” itself has dozens of posts related to this topic. I am now a firm believer that most problems do not have one unique solution in context of process design. You could have multiple design approaches each with its own merit...


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Thermal Profiling Of Long Distance Pipelines Carrying Chemicals (Gas And Liquid)

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 10 September 2017 - - - - - - · 1,633 views
thermal, profiling, pipelines
Thermal Profiling Of Long Distance Pipelines Carrying Chemicals (Gas And Liquid) Dear All,

One of the important tasks while doing a pipeline process study is to do a thermal profile study of a pipeline for various operating scenarios and ambient conditions. However, what are the practical aspects of doing a thermal profile are mostly unknown to majority of new engineers who undertake this exercise. In fact many young engineers are no...


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Actual Orifice Areas For Different Relief Valve Manufacturers Based On Api 526 Orifice Designations

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 29 August 2017 - - - - - - · 1,491 views
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Actual Orifice Areas For Different Relief Valve Manufacturers Based On Api 526 Orifice Designations Dear All,

API 526 provides provides orifice designations such as D, E, F..... etc. for relief valves with corresponding orifice cross-sectional areas. However, most manufacturers of relief valves provide the same API 526 designations with different areas (higher than as given in API 526) using a de-rated coefficient of discharge for the orifice. They cal...


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Centrifugal Compressor Surge Control Schemes And Control Elements

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 09 July 2017 - - - - - - · 1,623 views
centrifugal, compressor, surge and 1 more...
Centrifugal Compressor Surge Control Schemes And Control Elements Dear All,

I have written before on centrifugal compressor surge and anti-surge control. Refer my blog entry at the following link:

https://www.cheresou...-surge-control/

The above mentioned blog entry also provides an excel workbook for basic anti-surge control

In continuation of my further stu...


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Descriptive Comparison Between A Centrifugal And A Reciprocating Compressor

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 02 June 2017 - * * * * * · 1,928 views
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Descriptive Comparison Between A Centrifugal And A Reciprocating Compressor Dear All,

It has been really a long time since I have posted a new entry. I was preoccupied with work and also did not find the right topic to post.

My fascination with compressors continues. I was reading some articles on compressors and this one particular article struck me to be quite interesting. The article gives a descriptive comparison between a...


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Pipeline Pig Launchers And Pig Receivers - Design Codes

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 19 November 2016 - * * * * * · 7,302 views
pipe, pipeline, pig, launchers and 1 more...
Pipeline Pig Launchers And Pig Receivers - Design Codes Dear All,

After a long hiatus I am back on my blog. That the blog has crossed a milestone of 1.5 million views is a huge encouragement and I wish to thank the readers of my blog for such an overwhelming response.

Pig Launchers and Pig Receivers have been discussed many times on "Cheresources". However, I understood that there exists a confusion regardin...


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Side Stream Filtration Rate For Cooling Towers

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 18 July 2016 - - - - - - · 6,046 views
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Side Stream Filtration Rate For Cooling Towers Dear All,

Suspended solids (particulates or turbidity) are frequently found in cooling towers. At best these suspended solids will tend to settle out in low velocity areas of the water system (such as the cooling water basin) where they can become a breeding ground for bacteria, requiring frequent cleaning and flushing of the basin. At worst, they can de...


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Power Recovery Turboexpanders - Shaft Power Available

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 23 June 2016 - - - - - - · 4,815 views
power, recovery, turboexpanders and 1 more...
Power Recovery Turboexpanders - Shaft Power Available Dear All,

Commercial applications of high temperature power recovery turboexpanders use the expander to drive an air compressor which charges the process unit that produces the high temperature gas that expands to atmosphere across the turboexpander. The compressor/expander unit, together with its process unit, is therefore very similar to a special purp...


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Determining Potential Natural Gas Liquids (Ngl) In A Natural Gas Stream

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 04 June 2016 - - - - - - · 5,164 views
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Determining Potential Natural Gas Liquids (Ngl) In A Natural Gas Stream Dear All,

The amount of potentially recoverable NGL based from a natural gas stream can be estimated from the following formula:

Potential NGL component (tons per annum) = V*y*CF
where:
V = Volume flow rate of natural gas, MMSm3 /day (Std conditions are P= 1.01325 bara, T = 288.15K)
Note: MM= Million
y = mole percent of the component in natural gas
CF...


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First Approximation Of Fuel Gas Consumption For Gas Turbine Driven Compressor Station

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 14 May 2016 - - - - - - · 5,852 views
fuel, gas, consumption, turbines
First Approximation Of Fuel Gas Consumption For Gas Turbine Driven Compressor Station Dear All,

A lot of us are required to do preliminary utility estimation calculations during the Feasibility / Concept stage of a project. Another terminology often used is the Pre-FEED stage of a project. In fact this is often where non-availability of data or insufficient data becomes a bottle-neck. In such cases some minimum data with certain empirical...


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Solid-Liquid Mixing In Agitated Vessels (Just Suspended Speed)

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 08 April 2016 - * * * * * · 4,869 views
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Solid-Liquid Mixing In Agitated Vessels (Just Suspended Speed) Dear All,

Solid suspension and dispersion in a liquid is an important operation carried out in mixing systems. The primary objective of solid-liquid mixing is to create and maintain a solid-liquid slurry, and to promote and enhance the rate of mass transfer between the solid and liquid phases. Such processes are typically carried out in mechanically agit...


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Heat Transfer In Buried Liquid Lines (Stagnant Liquid)

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 13 February 2016 - * * * * * · 3,711 views
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Heat Transfer In Buried Liquid Lines (Stagnant Liquid) Dear All,

My earlier blog entry on heat transfer in buried liquid pipelines related to temperature reduction of the flowing liquid at a certain distance from the pipeline inlet.

Let us think of a buried pipeline or pipeline section where the liquid flow has been stopped and the liquid is now in a stagnant condition in the pipeline or pipeline section. L...


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Natural Gas Teg Dehydration Unit Troubleshooting

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 22 January 2016 - - - - - - · 4,466 views
natural, gas, teg, dehydration and 1 more...
Dear All,

Today's blog entry is dedicated to my dear departed father who passed away to his heavenly abode on January 05, 2016. He was a man of literature and whatever little writing skills I possess, it was he who inspired and encouraged me. I guess, I inherited a bit of writing skills from both of my parents, my father being a poet and short-story writ...


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Heat Transfer In Buried Liquid Pipelines

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 14 December 2015 - * * * * * · 5,406 views
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Heat Transfer In Buried Liquid Pipelines Dear All,

Today's blog entry relates to heat transfer from liquids flowing in long-distance buried pipelines. When liquids have to be transported at relatively high temperatures, e.g. viscous crudes/products, temperatures and cooling rates can be determined using the following formulae:



where:
TL = average temperature in cross-section of pipeline at...


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Deoiling Hydrocyclones And Their Performance Prediction

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 12 November 2015 - * * * * * · 4,359 views
hydrocyclones, deoiling and 2 more...
Deoiling Hydrocyclones And Their Performance Prediction Dear All,

Today's blog entry relates to liquid-liquid hydrocyclones used in produced water treatment in the oil & gas industry.

The static hydrocyclone has rapidly been accepted as a compact and efficient means of removing dispersed hydrocarbons from water. The basic design of the static hydrocyclone is illustrated schematically in the figure below:...


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Generalized Equation For Crude Oil Working Storage In Refinery Based On Various Factors

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 11 October 2015 - * * * * * · 4,534 views
crude, oil, working, storage and 1 more...
Generalized Equation For Crude Oil Working Storage In Refinery Based On Various Factors Dear All,

Refinery storage of raw materials (mainly crude oil) and finished products is a complex study and involves concepts of linear programming and Monte Carlo simulation. Refer the links below to know about these in context of raw material and product storage:

http://egon.cheme.cm...mannWassick.pdf

http://informs-si...


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Distance Between Mist Eliminator Top And Vapor Outlet Nozzle For Vertical Separators

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 04 September 2015 - - - - - - · 5,133 views
distance, mist, eliminator, top and 2 more...
Dear All,

Besides defining the Low-Low (LLL), Low (LL), Normal (NLL), High (HLL) and High-High (HHLL) liquid level based on criteria such as retention time, surge requirements for normal process control and adequate disengagement space during events such as large liquid slugs entering the separator or foaming, it is also important to define the vapor out...


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Pressure Drop In Fixed (Single Phase Tubular Packed) Bed Reactors

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical, Uncategorized 29 July 2015 - - - - - - · 4,756 views
pressure, drop, fixed, bed and 1 more...
Pressure Drop In Fixed (Single Phase Tubular Packed) Bed Reactors Dear All,

Today's blog entry relates to pressure drop in fixed bed reactors.

Let us examine the components that contribute to the calculated pressure drop in fixed bed reactors. The design pressure drop should consider a safety margin on the calculated pressure drop.

Bed Pressure Drop : For both gases and liquids this should be calculated based on the...


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Zeolite Based Molecular Sieve Adsorbents In The Chemical Process Industry

Posted by ankur2061 , in Technical 19 June 2015 - * * * * * · 4,926 views
zeolite, molecular, mol, sieve and 1 more...
Zeolite Based Molecular Sieve Adsorbents In The Chemical Process Industry Dear All,

Today's blog entry gives a brief overview of zeolite-based molecular sieves for physical adorption operations in the chemical process industry.

Since the 1960s, molecular sieve adsorbents have become firmly established as a means of performing difficult separations, including gases from gases, liquids from liquids and solutes from solutions. T...






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